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Wine Glossary

ACIDITY:

It is one of the main aspects used to describe wines. The acidity, expressed in terms of gram per litre, comes from the acids (mainly malic and tartaric) in grape juice, which diminish as grapes ripen. Acidity is a characteristic of wine that gives it its crispiness and vitality. Furthermore acidity is closely related to a top quality ageing process. If a hot summer reduces acids in grape juice, some have to be added through a process known as acidification.

ALCOHOL:

It is produced by the action of yeasts on grape sugars during the fermentation process. The alcohol content of wine is obtained from the percentage of sugar x 0,6 (this means that from 1g of sugar is obtained 0,6 ml of alcohol). The percentage of alcohol contained in wine is often given in degrees.

AMPELOGRAPHY:

The science that describes and identifies the different vine varieties and their cultivation methods.

BOUQUET:

Organoleptic characteristic (which describes the tertiary aromas) that arises during the ageing process of wine in casks and in bottle. The bouquet of a wine can remind the fragrance of apple, almond and nuts; furthermore it can also evoke aromas of animal origins (such as leather nuances). It is important to remember that a young wine cannot have bouquet.

CLARIFICATION:

A set of processes, including fining and filtration, designed to make a wine clear.

DOC:

Acronym of Controlled Designation of Origin, that is a designation of origin based on strict requirements and that describes the production areas of a specific wine. To deserve a “DOC" label wine must derive from the grapes cultivated in specific areas regulated by strict production codes, called "disciplinari di produzione". Prior to being put on the market, the wine undergoes a strict organoleptic and chemical-physical analysis in order to verify if it meets the strict requirements of the designation of origin. On the contrary it cannot use the DOC designation on its label.

DRY ESTRACT:

Residue left after evaporating a wine sample.

ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION:

During this process the sugars in the must are transformed into ethyl alcohol through the action of yeasts.

MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION:

During this secondary fermentation, bacteria transform malic acid into lactic acid, making the resulting wine is more supple.

AGEING:

Process of ageing wines in French oak barrels1. Extracts from the wood contribute to flavour and aroma. Furthermore, during the ageing period, acidity decreases and additional clarification and stabilisation occur. For some wines the ageing process can also continue in the bottle.

CARBONIC MACERATION:

Vinification process in which the grapes are fermented together with the stalks in sealed vat filled with carbon dioxide. Carbonic maceration is a special way of making fruity and young wines, such as Novello di Teroldego.

AFTERTASTE:

It is used to describe the taste, flavour and sensations which remain present after tasting wine. If these characters remain for more than a few seconds, a wine is said to have a rich and persistent aftertaste.

OVERPUMPING:

Action of pumping the must from the bottom to the head of the fermentation tank in order to improve extraction of colour and aromas through a continual contact of the skins with the juice.

TANNINO:

A vital ingredient in wines derived from grape seeds, stalks, and skins. It causes a bitter and astringent sensation on the palate and it can help to preserve red wines while they mature in bottle.

(1) Cantina Rotaliana only uses French oak barrels, but other wineries use casks of different types of wood